Key Concepts in Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
The cognitive component in the cognitive-behavioural psychotherapies refers to how
people think about and create meaning about situations, symptoms and events in their
lives and develop beliefs about themselves, others and the world. Cognitive therapy
uses techniques to help people become more aware of how they reason, and the kinds
of automatic thought that spring to mind and give meaning to things.
Cognitive interventions use a style of questioning to probe for peoples’ meanings
and use this to stimulate alternative viewpoints or ideas. This is called ‘guided
discovery’, and involves exploring and reflecting on the style of reasoning and thinking,
and possibilities to think differently and more helpfully. On the basis of these
alternatives people carry out behavioural experiments to test out the accuracy of
these alternatives, and thus adopt new ways of perceiving and acting. Overall the
intention is to move away from more extreme and unhelpful ways of seeing things to
more helpful and balanced conclusions.
The behavioural component in the cognitive-behavioural psychotherapies refers to
the way in which people respond when distressed. Responses such as avoidance, reduced
activity and unhelpful behaviours can act to keep the problems going or worsen how
the person feels. CBT practitioners aim to help the person feel safe enough to gradually
test out their assumptions and fears and change their behaviours. For example this
might include helping people to gradually face feared or avoided situations as a
means to reducing anxiety and learning new behavioural skills to tackle problems.
Importantly the cognitive and behavioural psychotherapies aim to directly target
distressing symptoms, reduce distress, re-evaluate thinking and promote helpful behavioural
responses by offering problem-focussed skills-based treatment interventions.
What is TA?
T.A. is a theory of personality and a systemic psychotherapy for personal growth
and personal change. “International Transactional Analysis Association”
T.A. is all of this and much more. Among Psychological approaches, transactional
analysis is outstanding in the depth of its theory and the wide variety of it’s applications:
Theory of personality, using the 3 part model known as ego- states.
Theory of child development, how our present life patterns originated in childhood.
It provides a method of therapy for use with individuals, groups, couples and families.
Outside the therapeutic field:
T.A. is used in educational settings.
T.A. is a powerful tool in management and communications training and in organizational
T.A. is used in many other applications, for example; social workers, the police
and probation authorities.
T.A. can be used in any field where there is a need for understanding of individuals,
relationships and clear communication.
The Philosophy of TA
T.A. rests upon certain philosophical presuppositions.
These are statements about people, life and the objectives of change.
People are O.K.
Everyone has the capacity to think
People decide their own destiny, and these decisions can be changed, if you want!
Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) was created in the early 1970s by Richard Bandler,
a computer scientist and Gestalt therapist, and Dr John Grinder, a linguist and therapist....
Hang on... you might not be interested in all this...